The Lai’s Subject and Sources Chevrefoil is a Breton lai by the mediæval poet Marie de France. A lai is a mediæval type of short tale in French literature that is usually in octosyllabic (eight-syllable) verse, often connected with King Arthur or the Round Table. Typically, Chevrefoil is the eleventh
Here begins the Life of Illtud, Abbot. The Beginnings of Illtud and his Kinship to Arthur According to Vita Sancti Iltuti, written anonymously in the late Eleventh Century AD (or c 1140, or in the 1190s), Illtud was the son of “Bicanus”, a “British prince” (§1 – section one of
The Chronology of Vita Sancti Gildae To understand the significance and influence of Vita Sancti Gildae, one must examine the evidence for the year of Gildas’ birth, the date of the Battle of Badon Hill (supposedly the same year as the birth of Gildas), and the date of the writing
Introduction to the Text, its Summary, and its Manuscript Tradition Erec (Erek, Ereck) is a poem written by Hartmann von Aue in Middle High German rhyming couplets. According to Joachim Bumke (2006), this poem is thought to be the earliest of Hartmann’s narrative works and dates from c AD 1185.
Érec et Énide is the second of Chrétien de Troyes’ five romance poems, completed late Twelfth Century AD (c AD 1170). It is one of the four completed works by Chrétien, the other three being Lancelot, or Le Chevalier de la Charrete (Lancelot, or The Knight of the Cart), Cligès,
Introduction to the Poem: Structure and Technique Cligès is a poem by the mediæval French poet Chrétien de Troyes, dating from the late 12th Century AD (c 1176). It is the third of Chrétien’s five Arthurian romances; Lancelot, or Le Chevalier de la Charrete (Lancelot, or The Knight of the
An Outline of the Cycle’s Contents The Robert Cycle, or Robert de Boron’s Cycle, is also known as La Grant Estoire dou Graal (The Grand History of the Grail), or Roman du Graal (Romance of the Grail), or Livre du Graal (Book of the Grail), or Le Petit Cycle du
The Saint’s Name and the Uncertainties of the Time-Period Carannog is most commonly known as a 6th-Century AD Welsh abbot, confessor, and saint. In addition to Carannog/Carantog (in Welsh), his name is variously represented as Cairnech/Cairnach/C(h)ernach/Cernath/Carnath (Irish), Caredec/Karanteg (Breton), Carantocus/Carantacus (Latin), and anglicised as Carantock (among other English variations, such
Here begins the life of Saint Padarn, bishop. Overview of Padarn and his Vita Padarn(us) (Paternus) was an early 6th Century AD consecrated British Christian abbot-bishop. This British Padarn and Saint Paternus of Avranches in Normandy appear to be the same person. By tradition, it is said that Paternus of
The Scant Historical Framework of Efflam’s Life Saint Efflam(m) is semi-legendary. According to the Monks of Ramsgate (in the “Efflam” entry for the Book of Saints, 1921), Efflam(m) was born in Britain and died in Brittany. His feast day is 6 November. He was the son of an Irish king.